This is a re-upload of an article by brother Nader Zaveri that is not longer available on his blog, you can check out his blog for other posts: here
How many daughters did the Prophet ﷺ have? Unfortunately, this has become the question. How can this be? The very reason why we are on this beautiful religion of Islam, that being because of the Prophet ﷺ, and now we are having ikhtilaf (differences) on how many daughters he had?
This is rather a new phenomenon, the ijma’ (consensus) of all the classical scholars and later scholars is that the Prophet ﷺ had 4 daughters from Khadeejah عليها السلام. It is incorrect and a bid’ah (innovation) to believe that the Prophet ﷺ had only one daughter, Fatimah عليها السلام.
The proponents of this theory say that they are not the REAL daughters of Khadeejah عليها السلام and the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, instead the other daughters are the daughters of Haalah, sister of Khadeejah عليها السلام.
In this article, I will prove through Shia books, that the Prophet ﷺ did indeed have 4 daughters from Khadeejah عليها السلام. The four daughters being Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom and Fatimah, may peace be upon them all, the best of them being Fatimah عليها السلام.
I will prove from the Qur’an, and I will provide Sahih [authentic] ahadith from our Imams that prove the Prophet ﷺ had more than one daughter. After providing Sahih ahadith, I will show many more ahadith all going through different chains proving for more than one daughter; just to show how mutawatir (widely narrated) this belief was that it is impossible for this to be wrong. Denying these ahadith would essentially be denying the Imams عليهم السلام, since it has been so widely reported through so many different people.
Then, I will provide scholarly viewpoints from the classical scholars all the way to the contemporary scholars on the number of daughters from the Prophet ﷺ. At the end, I will show the origin of this belief of 1 daughter of the Prophet ﷺ, who came up with it, and what is his position amongst the scholars?
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا – 33:59
O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.Holy Qur’an, 33:59
As you can see, Allah (swt) was very explicit in the Qur’an when he specifically spoke to his Prophet ﷺ, telling him to tell “your daughters”. This “banaat” in Arabic is the plural form of the word daughters, if the Prophet ﷺ only had one daughter Allah would’ve said “bintuka” (your daughter).
Allah cannot tell the Prophet ﷺ “your daughters” if they weren’t his daughters, because Allah has condemned calling another person’s child your own in the Qur’an.
ادْعُوهُمْ لِآبَائِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوا آبَاءَهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَمَوَالِيكُمْ ۚ… – 33:5
Call them by [the names of] their fathers; it is more just in the sight of Allah . But if you do not know their fathers – then they are [still] your brothers in religion and those entrusted to you…Holy Qur’an, 33:5
All of the mufassireen (commentators of the Qur’an) say that this verse was revealed specifically for Zayd bin Haarithah, people used to call him, Zayd bin Muhammad, but Allah (swt) put a stop to that, and told everyone to call him Zayd son of Haarithah.
- Tafseer Al-Qummi, vol. 2, pg. 175
- Al-Tusi, Tibyaan Fee Tafseer Al-Qur’an, vol. 8, pg. 315
- Al-Tabarasee, Majma’ Al-Bayyaan, vol. 8, pg. 528
- Group of Muslim Scholars, The Light of the Holy Qur’aan, vol. 14, pg. 402
If indeed the other daughters were not the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ, but were daughters of Haalah, then the daughters after the revelation of this verse were not suppose to referred to as the “daughters of the Prophet” or the “daughters of the Messenger of Allah”.
Some people will claim that Allah (swt) has said “your daughters” to ONLY mean Fatimah عليها السلام similar to how Allah (swt) has addressed Sayeda Fatimah عليها السلام as “women” in Surah Aal Imraan (3), Verse 61.
There are many things wrong with this assumption. (1) First and foremost, it is Qiyaas (analogical reasoning), which is haram in Shia Islam. (2) Second, we have numerous of ahadith both in Shia and Sunni books that the ONLY woman he took to Mubahilah was Fatimah عليها السلام. And finally, there are zero ahadith from the Shia books in which the Prophet ﷺ, The Imams عليهم السلام, or any of the Sahabas (companions) called the other daughters of the Prophet ﷺ by any other name, other than “daughter of Muhammad” or “daughter of the Messenger of Allaah”.
Also, some might try to bring out Surah Al-Kawthar (108), when Allaah (swt) says “abtar”, they say this refers to the lack of children that he had. This is wrong, since the word was used in connotation with the Prophet ﷺ having no male sons living, since all of them died at a very young age.
Those people who think the Prophet ﷺ only had one daughter will have to admit the one of the following things. (1) The Imams عليهم السلام went against explicit instructions of the Qur’an by saying “daughters of the Prophet” when they weren’t the daughters, thus going against their ‘isma (infallibility). (2) Admitting, that the Prophet ﷺ indeed had more than one daughter.
In the ahadith section, I will provide many ahadith of the Imams عليهم السلام as well as the companions of the Imams عليهم السلام referring to the other daughters of the Prophet ﷺ as “daughter of the Prophet” or “daughter of the Messenger of Allah”.
NOTE: Look at how many different chains, this belief of having more than one daughter goes through, and there are zero ahadith in the Shia books that say there is only one daughter.
Here is a Hasan (Good) hadeeth that is taken as a Sahih (authentic) hadith from Imam Musa Al-Kadhim عليه السلام, also known as ‘Abd Salih (Righteous servant). This is a dua (supplication):
O Allaah send blessing up Al-Qaasim, and Al-Taahir sons of your prophet. O Allaah send blessings upon Ruqayyah, daughter of your Prophet, and curse whoever harmed your prophet through her, O Allaah send blessing upon Umm Kulthoom, daughter of your prophet, and curse whoever harmed your prophet through her. O Allaah send blessing upon the progeny of your prophet…Al-Tusi, Tahdheeb al-Ahkam, vol. 3, pg. 120, hadeeth # 38;
Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is Hasan (Good) in his Milaadh Al-Akhyaar, vol. 5, pg. 116.
Here is another Sahih hadith where Imam Al-Sadiq عليه السلام specifically calls Zaynab, one of the other daughters of the Prophet, “daughter of the Messenger of Allah”.
From Al-Halabi from Abi ‘AbdAllah عليه السلام that his father (al-Baqir) narrated to him that Umamah, daughter of Abee Al-`Aas bin Al-Rabee`, and her mother Zaynab, daughter of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ that she married after `Ali عليه السلامAl-Toosi, Tahdheeb, vol. 8, pg. 258, hadeeth # 169
Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is Sahih (Authentic) in his Milaadh Al-Akhyaar, vol. 13, pg. 513;
Al-Hillee said this hadeeth is Sahih (Authentic) in his Tadhkirah Al-Fuquhaa, vol. 2, pg. 452;
Yousif Bahrani said this hadeeth is Sahih (Authentic) in his Hadaa’iq Al-NaaDirah, vol. 22, pg. 634;
Al-Khoei said this hadeeth has a Sahih (Authentic) Sanad in his Mu`jam Rijaal Al-Hadeeth, vol. 19, pg. 305, person # 12592
Here is another hadith that is Muwaththaq (Reliable) that Zaynab is specifically called “daughter of the Prophet”.
زينب بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وكانت تحت علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام بعد فاطمة عليها السلامAl-Tusi, Tahdheeb, vol. 9, pg. 241, hadith # 28; Al-Saduq, Man La Yahdhuruh Al-Faqih, vol. 4, pg. 198, hadith # 5455
Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is Muwaththaq (Reliable) in his Milaadh Al-Akhyaar, vol. 15, pg. 180;
Al-Majlisi I (Al-Majlisi’s Father) said this hadeeth is Muwaththaq Kal-SaHeeH (Reliable like an Authentic (hadeeth)) in his RawDah Al-Muttaqqeen, vol. 11, pg. 68
Here is a hadith about Fatima عليها السلام performing Salaah Al-Mayyit (Deceased Prayer) over her sister, Zaynab. Also, the Imam saying “daughter of the Prophet”.
And Zaynab, daughter of the Prophet ﷺ passed away, and Fatimah عليها السلام went out amongst her women and prayed upon her sisterAl-Toosi, Tahdheeb, vol. 3, pg. 333, hadeeth # 69
Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is Dha’eef Kal-Muwaththaq (Weak like a Reliable (hadeeth)) in his Milaadh Al-Akhyaar, vol. 5, pg. 643
Here is another hadeeth from our Imams that talk about the number of children the Prophet ﷺ had with Khadeejah عليها السلام. This hadeeth is Dha’eef (weak), no need to worry about that though since the other daughters have already been proven, and there are no ahadith to contradict this.
Ja`far bin Muhammad from his Father who said: “The children of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ from Khadeejah were Al-Qaasim, Al-Taahir, Umm Kulthoom, Ruqayyah, Fatimah, and Zaynab. And `Ali عليه السلام married Fatimah عليها السلام. And Aboo `Aas bin Rabee` and he is from Banu Ummayyah married Zaynab. And `Uthmaan bin `Affaan married Umm Kulthoom, and he did not enter in her (i.e. sexual intercourse) until she passed away, and the Messenger of Allah married him to Ruqayyah in her place, then the Messenger of Allaah’s ﷺ child from Umm Ibrahim is Ibrahim, and she is Maariyah Al-QibtiyyahAl-Himyaree, Qurb Al-Isnaad, pg. 6
This chain (Haroon bin Muslim from Mas`adah bin Sadaqah) is usually accepted and considered Muwaththaq (reliable) by majority of scholars (See: Al-Majlisi’s Mir’aat Al-`Uqool, Al-Khoei’s Mu`jam Rijaal Al-Hadeeth), but I reject this chain. So by their grading, this will be Muwaththaq.
Here is another hadith that explicitly states the names of the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ.
From Abi Baseer from Abi `AbdAllaah عليه السلام who said: “The Messenger of Allah’s ﷺ children from Khadeejah were Al-Qaasim, Al-Taahir, and he is `AbdAllaah, (daughters were) Umm Kulthoom, Ruqayyah, Zaynab, and Fatimah. `Ali bin Abi Talib عليه السلام married Fatima عليها السلام. Aboo Al-`Aas bin Al-Rabee’ and he is a man from the Banu Umayyah married Zaynab. `Uthmaan bin `Affaan married Umm Kulthoom but she died before he enter upon her (i.e. consummated the marriage). When (`Uthmaan) went to Badr, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ married him to Ruqayyah. The Messenger of Allah had a son (named) Ibrahim from Maariyah Al-Qibtiyyah and she is Umm Ibraaheem and Umm Walad”Al-Saduq, Al-Khisal, vol. 2, pg. 404, hadeeth # 115
This chain is dha`eef (weak) due to two reasons. Muhammad bin Khaalid Al-Barqee is said to be dha`eef in hadith as per Al-Najashi (See: Rijal Al-Najashi), but other scholars disagreed with this weakening and said Muhammad bin Khaalid Al-Barqee is thiqah (See: Al-Khoei’s Mu`jam Rijaal Al-Hadeeth), so there is ikhtilaf (difference of opinion) on him. Another weak point in the chain of narrators is `Ali bin Abi Hamzah, he is considered to be mal’oon (accursed) (See: Al-Kashi’s Ikhtiyaar Ma`arifah Al-RIjaal) and weak by all major rijal scholars.
Here is another hadith that explicitly states the names of the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ taken from the same book, this goes through a different chain.
From Abi `AbdAllah عليه السلام: The Messenger of Allah عليه السلام entered his house, and when `A’isha was yelling at Fatimah عليها السلام. She was saying, „By Allah, O daughter of Khadeejah, that you believe that your mother was better than us. What was in her that made her nobler than us?‟ Fatimah who was listening to her cried when she saw the Prophet ﷺ. So he (the Prophet) said to her, „O daughter of Muhammad! Why are you crying?‟ She replied, „`A’isha mentioned my mother’s name with disrespect and I cried.‟ The Prophet of God ﷺ became angry, turned to `A’isha and said, „Ya Humayra! The Blessed the Sublime God has honored kind women who give birth to children. Khadeejah, may Allah have mercy upon her, gave me Taahir, and he is `AbdAllah and he is Mutahir, and she bore me Al-Qaasim, Fatimah, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom, Zaynab. However, you are one whom God has made barren and have not given birth to any child for me.”Al-Saduq, Al-Khisal, vol. 2, pg. 404, hadeeth # 116
Here is a hadith of the Prophet ﷺ describing Al-Hussain عليه السلام to the people, notice who he talks about, when he describes his family members.
“O People! This is Al-Hussayn, son of Ali, he has the best grandfather and grandmother, his grandfather, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, is the master of all Prophets; his grandmother is Khadeejah, daughter of Khuwaylid, the first of all women to believe in Allah and His Messenger. And this is al-Hussayn son of Ali, has the best father in all people, the best mother in all people; his father is Ali son of Aboo Taalib, the Messenger’s brother, vice and cousin, the first of all men to believe in Allah and His Messenger; his mother is Fatima daughter of Muhammad, the Mistress of all women.Ibn Tawoos, Al-Taraa’if, vol. 1, pg. 118; Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar, vol. 23, ch. 8, pg. 111, pg. 19
And this is Al-Hussain son of Ali has the best paternal uncle and the best paternal aunt; his uncle is Ja`far, son of Aboo Taalib who is adorned with two wings with which he flies to wherever he wants in Paradise, and his aunt is Umm Haanee, daughter of Aboo Taalib.
And this is Al-Hussayn son of Ali, he has the best maternal uncle maternal aunt; his maternal uncle is Al-Qaasim, son the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, and his maternal aunt is Zaynab daughter of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. He then put him on his shoulder, separated his arms then knelt and said: “O people, this is Al-Hussayn son of Ali; his grandfather and grandmother are in Paradise; his paternal uncle and paternal aunt are in Paradise; his maternal uncle and maternal aunt are in Paradise; he and his brother are in Paradise.”
Here is another hadith that Zaynab is said to be the “daughter of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ”. This one is dha’eef (weak), but it is already backed up by Sahih hadith confirming this. Note: Once again, going through a different chain.
Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol. 6, pg. 369, hadith # 1
Here is a hadith of the Prophet ﷺ describing Al-Hussain عليه السلام maternal aunt and uncles, notice the names.
“And Al-Hussain, and his maternal uncles is Al-Qaasim, son of the Messenger of Allah, and his maternal aunt is Zaynab, daughter of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.”Al-Saduq, Al-Amali, pg. 437, hadith # 2
Here is a hadith from Imam `Ali عليه السلام in Nahj al-Balagha, in which he is talking to `Uthmaan, the third caliph, and saying that he has the honor of being the “son-in-law” of the Prophet ﷺ, something that the first two caliphs were not.
“And Ibn Abi Quhaafah (Abu Bakr) and Ibn al-Khataab (`Umar) were no more responsible for acting righteously than you, since and you are nearer to the Messenger of Allah through kinship than both of them (Abu Bakr & `Umar), and you take from him being a son-in-law which they are not.”Nahj Al-Balagha, Sermon # 164 (Imam `Ali عليه السلام talking to `Uthman)
Here is a hadith from one of our Imams and they specifically said “Ruqayyah daughter of the Messenger of Allah”.
One of them عليه السلام said: “When Ruqayyah, daughter of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ died. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said „you now join the people of good deeds, of our predecessors `Uthman bin Madh`oon and his companions. Fatimah عليها السلام stood at the edge of the grave with her tears calling into the grave, and the Messenger of Allah ﷺ allows his tears to fall on his clothes while standing he prayed saying „I am aware of her weakness and pray to Allah to grant her protection against the pressure of the grave‟”Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol. 3, pg. 241, hadith # 18
Here is a hadith that talks about Imam `Ali عليه السلام entering with Fatimah عليها السلام entering after HER SISTER died.
And it is narrated that Ameer Al-Mu’mineen عليه السلام entered with Fatimah عليها السلام after the death of her sister Ruqayyah, wife of `Uthman.Al-Tusi, Al-Amali, Majlis #2, Hadith # 16 (in majlis) / Hadith # 47 (in book)
We have seen countless upon countless of ahadith from the Imams عليهم السلام that show that there were more than one daughter of the Prophet ﷺ. This will easily be considered mutawaatir (widely narrated), and be accepted automatically by any scholar.
Now we must see what the Scholars have said concerning the number of daughters the Prophet ﷺ had.
Aboo Al-Qasim Al-Hussain bin Ruh (d. 326 AH)
He isn’t really considered a scholar, but a na’ib (representative) of our 12th Imam عليه السلام. He was asked a question concerning the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ from some scholars.
So he said to him: “How many daughters did the Messenger of Allah ﷺ have? So he (Hussain bin Ruh) said: “Four”. He said: And who is the best? So he (Hussain bin Ruh) said: “Fatimah عليها السلام”Al-Tusi, Kitab Al-Ghaybah, pg. 387
Shaykh al-Kulayni (d. 329 AH)
Compiler of the great work Al-Kafi, very rarely does Al-Kulayni talk himself in Al-Kafi, he usually just narrates ahadith from the Ahlulbayt عليهم السلام, but he has discussed the number of daughters. Here is what he said:
(Al-Kulayni saying this) He ﷺ married Khadeejah when he was twenty and some years old. His children from her before his revelation (as a Prophet) were Al-Qaasim, Ruqayyah, Zaynab and Umm Kulthoom. His children born after his revelation were Al-Tayyib, Al-Tahir and Fatimah عليها السلام. It is also narrated that he had no children after revelation besides Fatimah عليها السلام were born and that al-Tayyib and al-Tahir were born before he revelation.Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol. 1, pg. 439
Shaykh al-Mufeed (d. 413 AH)
He was asked about whether Zaynab and Ruqayyah were the daughters of the Prophet or not. Here is what he said:
Answer: “That Zaynab and Ruqayyah were two daughters of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and the opposition in that is shaadh (odd) in his opposition”Al-Mufeed, Al-Masail Al-‘Akbariyyah, pg. 120
Shareef al-Murtadha (d. 436 AH)
He replies to people who were said that Ruqayyah and Zaynab were not the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ, but were the daughters of Haalah, sister of Khadeejah عليها السلام.
And amongst our companions who are careless is that Ruqayyah and Zaynab are not the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ in reality and claim that they both are the daughters of Khadeejah, may Allaah be pleased with her, from [Haalah] son of Abi Haalah, (and this) is not correct according to what should have been importantly known, because the knowledge about that (they get this) is from which have been confused in what we know from akhbaar/history-reports, like the knowledge of the obvious matters. Doubting in this matter, is like doubting in every matter known through knowledge of akhbar. And we don’t have to be arrogant about is known and alhamdullilahAl-Murtadha, Inkaah Ameer Al-Mu’mineen Ibnatihi `Umar
Shaykh Al-Tusi (d. 460 AH)
“FaaTimah عليها السلام married `Ali عليه السلام, and he is Ameer Al-Mu’mineen (عليه السلام), and her mother is Khadeejah, mother of the believers, and her (khadeejah’s) daughters Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthoom married `Uthmaan”Al-Tusi, Al-Mabsoot, vol. 4, pg. 159
Fadhl bin Al-Hassan al-Tabrasi (d. 548 AH)
He writes in his biography of the Prophet ﷺ on the number of daughters the Prophet ﷺ had from Khadeejah عليها السلام.
“The first child born was ‘AbdAllah son of Muhammad ﷺ, who was (known as) Al-Tayyib & Al-Tahir. She also gave birth to (another) son Al-Qasim, and people say Al-Qasim was older and his firstborn, as his kunya (title) was Abu Al-Qasim. Some people have mistakenly assumed that the Prophet had four sons from Khadeejah: Al-Qaasim, ‘AbdAllaah, Al-Tayyib, and Al-Tahir. (the truth is) That he bore from her two sons and four daughters: Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom, and Fatimah.”Al-Tabrasi, `Ilaam Al-Waraa’, pg. 139
Ibn Shahrashoob al-Mazandarani (d. 558 AH)
He has also stated in his esteemed work Al-Manaaqib, the number of daughters the Prophet ﷺ had from Khadeejah عليها السلام.
“His children born from Khadeejah عليها السلام are Al-Qasim, `AbdAllaah, and they are Al-Tahir and Al-Tayyib, and four daughters, Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom, she is “Aminah”, and Fatimah, and she is “Umm Abeeha”. And he did not have any children except Ibrahim from Mariyah”Ibn Shahr Ashoob, Manaaqib, vol. 1, pg. 161
Shaheed al-Thani (d. 966 AH)
“And the Messenger of Allah ﷺ married Fatimah عليها السلام with `Ali عليه السلام. And her sisters Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthoom (married) with `Uthmaan”Shaheed Al-Thani, Masalik Al-Afhaam, vol. 7, pg. 81
Faydh al-Kashani (d. 1091 AH)
“And the children the he had from before his (first) revelation were Al-Qasim, Ruqayyah, Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom, and the children after (first) revelation were Al-Tayyib, Al-Tahir, and Fatimah عليها السلام. And it is narrated also that he did not have any children after (first) revelation except Fatimah عليها السلام.”Faydh Al-Kashani, Al-Wafi, vol. 3, pg. 722 (Faydh Al-Kashani, himself, is saying this)
Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi (d. 1110 AH)
Chapter V: Account of Khadeejah: Muhammad is employed by her in a Mercantile Expedition to Syria: He marries her and has by her Qasim, Abdullah, Ruqayyah, Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom and Fatimah.Al-Majlisi II, Hayat Al-Quloob, vol. 2, Ch. 7, pg. 67
On the authority of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq عليه السلام: “…God be gracious to Khadeejah, from whom by me pure and sacred were born Abdullah, Qasim, Fatimah, Ruqayyah, Zaynab, and Umm Kulthoom…”
Haeri al-Mazandarani (d. 1216AH)
“And his children from her عليها السلام before his (first) revelation were Al-Qaasim, Ruqayyah, Zaynab, and Umm Kulthoom”Haeri al-Mazandarani, Muntaha Al-Maqaal, vol. 1, pg. 11
Kaashif al-Ghita (d. 1228 AH)
“And he had 8 children that was born from Khadeejah عليها السلام. (The Children) before revelation were Al-Qasim, Ruqayyah, Zaynab, and Umm Kulthoom.”Kaashif al-Ghita, Kashf Al-Ghita, vol. 1, pg. 5
Shaykh Abbas Al-Qummi (d. 1359 AH)
Here is what Shaykh Abbas Al-Qummi, compiler of Mafatih al-Jinan, had to say in regards to the number of daughters the Prophet ﷺ had:
And it has been mentioned in (Qurb Al-Isnaad) from al-Imam al-Sadiq عليه السلام said: “The children of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ from Khadeejah were Al-Qaasim, Al-Taahir, Umm Kulthoom, Ruqayyah, Fatimah, and Zaynab. And `Ali عليه السلام married Fatimah ©عليها†السلام®†. And Abu `Aas bin Rabee` and he is from Banu Ummayyah married Zaynab. And `Uthman bin `Affaan married Umm Kulthoom, and he did not enter in her (i.e. sexual intercourse) until she passed away, and the Messenger of Allah married him to Ruqayyah in her place”Shaykh Abbas al-Qummi, Muntaha al-Amaal, vol. 1, pg. 151 (Quoting originally from Qurb Al-Isnad, this narration as already been mentioned and discussed in the hadith section, under hadith #5)
Sayed Muhammad al-Shirazi (d. 2001 AD)
Taken from his book Ummaahaat Al-Ma`soomeen, the second chapter is dedicated to Khadeejah عليها السلام, and this is what is said under the section of “Children of Sayyidah Khadeejah عليها السلام”.
Children of Sayeda Khadeejah:Sayed Muhammad al-Shirazi, Ummaahaat Al-Ma`soomeen, ch. 2 – Sayeda Khadeejah
That the children of the Messenger ﷺ all of them are from Sayeda Khadeejah, except Ibrahim. And Sayeda Khadeejah عليها السلام bore from the boys: Al-Qasim and Al-Tayyib, and they died in Mekkah very young. And she bore from the girls: Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom, Ruqayyah, and Fatimah.
Sayed Muhammad Taqi al-Modarresi
And the sustenance of the Prophet from khadeejah is five children, they are: Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom, FaaTimah, Ruqayyah, and Al-Qaasim or Al-TaahirSayed Muhammad Taqi al-Modarresi, Al-Nabee Muhammad ﷺ , Introduction
Shaykh Ja’far Subhani
Here is what the esteemed scholar Shaykh Ja’far Subhani has said concerning the amount of daughters of the Prophet ﷺ.
The children of The Messenger ﷺ:Shaykh Ja’far Subhani, Seerah Al-Muhammadiyyah, ch. Children of the Prophet, pg. 46
“That the children Khadeejah bore with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ are six, from the children two of them were male, the eldest was Al-Qasim and `AbdAllaah. And four daughters. And Ibn Hishaam has mentioned: That the oldest of the daughters is Ruqayyah, then Zaynab, then Umm Kulthoom, then Fatimah”
Only One Daughter?
Who came up with this Theory?
We have established that the Prophet ﷺ had four daughters from Khadeejah عليها السلام from the Qur’an, ahadith, and scholarly opinion (From Classical scholars to contemporary). Now, we must look through history and see when and where did this theory of there being only one daughter of the Prophet ﷺ first emerge. I say “theory”, because it is just that, it is not substantiated by any evidence from the Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام instead the followers of this theory use shaadh (odd) historical sources to prove this.
When you look through the books of seerah (biographies) there seemed to be an ijmaa` (consensus) amongst the Shia scholars that the Prophet ﷺ did indeed have four daughters, as I have shown already. If there was an ijma’ (consensus) amongst the `ulema (scholars) of the Shia, then who came up with this theory of only having one daughter? When did he live? How is he viewed amongst the `ulema (scholars) of the shia, is he considered to be a “good person” even amongst our scholars? All of these questions and more will answered in the upcoming sections, insha Allah.
`Ali bin Ahmad Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi
When you look through the books, the earliest traces of when this theory of there being only one daughter of the Prophet ﷺ comes from a man named `Ali bin Ahmad Abu al-Qasim Al-Kufi.
He, Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi, was the first one who proposed that Ruqayyah and Zaynab were not daughters of Khadeejah; rather they were daughters of Haalah, sister of Khadeejah. Our scholars have deemed this to be a bid’ah (innovation). Even great contemporary scholars such as Al-Tustari (d. 1415 AH) has said that this bid`ah was started from the book of Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi:
“Then there is no doubt that Zaynab and Ruqayyah were daughters of the Prophet ﷺ and the bid`ah which it has been mentioned in the book of Abu Al-Qasim (Al-Kufi).”Al-Tustari, Qaamoos Al-Rijaal, vol. 9, pg. 450
Now, that we have established that this “theory” of there being only one daughter of the Prophet ﷺ was started by this guy named Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi, we must then figure out, when was he alive?
As per all the great Rijal scholars, they have said that he died in the year 352 AH. for example:
He died in Jamaadi Al-Awwal in the year 352 AHAl-Najashi, Rijal, pg. 266, person # 691
What is His Status amongst Our Scholars?
There is an ijma’ (consensus) from our classical scholars to our contemporary scholar on the status of Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi. They have all said that he was from the “ghulat” (exaggerators), that he was a “kadhaab” (liar), and a person who has a “faasid madhhab” (corrupt belief). I will attempt to show you the ijma` amongst our scholars on his status.
ʿAlī b. Aḥmad, Abū al-Qāsim, al-Kūfī, the propagator of ghuluw. (exaggeration) A liar, a ghālī, the possessor of a bidʿah (innovation) and a doctrine. I saw he has many books, he is not turned to.Ibn Al-Ghadhaeri, Kitab Al-Dhu`afaa, pg. 82, person # 104
“Ghulaa (exaggerator) at the end of his life, and he has a fasad (corrupt) belief, and he composed many books, many (of those books while) on the fasaad (corrupt belief)”
“And this man is claimed to the ghulat a great position”Al-Najashi, Rijal Al-Najashi, pg. 265 – 266, person # 691
And many more scholars described him similarly such as: Shaykh al-Tusi, Ibn Dawood al-Hilli, Allamah al-Hilli, Muqadis al-Ardabili, Mustafa b. Hussain al-Tafrishi, al-Haeri al-Mazanadarani, al-Burujerdi, Muhadith al-Noori, al-Shahroodi, al-Khoei, al-Tustari
In Which Book Did He Write This Theory?
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi has authored many books, but the book that I want to discuss specifically is his book called Kitab Al-Istighaathah fee bid` Al-Thalaathah. In today’s time it is popularly known as Kitab Al-Istighaathah, the book was originally titled Kitab Al-Bid` Al-Muhaddithah.
This book (Al-Bid` Al-Muhaddithah) is mentioned as one of his books by all major Rijal scholars. Al-Najaashee (d. 450 AH) has mentioned this to be one of the books of Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi, as well as many others.
The book today is more known as al-Istighaathah, by Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi, this book is still extant. I will quote where Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi has declared the daughters of the Prophet ﷺ were not actually his from Khadeejah عليها السلام.
“And we state and it is clear, by Allah, that Ruqayyah and Zaynab, wives of `Uthmaan, were not the daughters of the Messenger of Allaah ﷺ and not the children of Khadeejah, wife of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.”Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi, Kitaab al-Istighaathah, pg. 64
Then, Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi attempts to prove that those daughters were not of Khadeejah عليها السلام, but of her sister Haalah. His attempt was a weak one at best, since he provided zero ahadeeth from the Ahl Al-Bayt عليهم السلام, instead this theory was based off of pure dhann (speculation).
The Prophet ﷺ had four daughters, all of them from his most beloved wife Khadeejah عليها السلام, the best of all the daughters is Faatimah عليها السلام. The names of the daughters were Ruqayyah, Zaynab, Umm Kulthoom, and Fatimah, may Allah shower the best of blessings upon all of them.
Denying that the Prophet ﷺ had four daughters is essentially denying the Imams عليهم السلام. The amount of ahadith that are there, as well as all of them going through different chain of narrators, thus making it mutawatir (widely narrated), meaning the chances of it being a fabrication is inconceivable and impossible. Not only will you be denying the Imams عليهم السلام, but you will also essentially deny a scholarship of 1400 years of Islam. This shows that without a shadow of a doubt, the Prophet ﷺ had more than one daughter.
Anyone who claims that the Prophet ﷺ had only one daughter has fallen into a bid`ah (innovation), and they are hurting the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, since you are not acknowledging his own flesh and blood. The originator of this theory, Abu Al-Qasim Al-Kufi, was a man heavily condemned as being from the ghulat [exaggerators] by scholars from the past to the present.
Since this theory has stemmed from a guy who is accused of being a ghali (exaggerator) of the Ahl Al-Bayt عليهم السلام, it would make total sense for someone of that corrupt belief to make up a theory in order to put Fatimah عليها السلام in a “higher status”. The high status of being the “only” daughter of the Prophet ﷺ, the problem with this theory is that even if Fatimah عليها السلام was not the only daughter of the Prophet ﷺ it does not in any way put her in a lower status.
The reason why I stated in the Introduction that this is a “new phenomenon”, even though the person who came up with this theory did so 1000 years ago is because no one took heed to this theory. Rather, it was thrown out as being a shaadh (odd) belief by our classical scholars. It is only until today that this theory has “revived”, unfortunately.
All Praise is to Allah (swt), and May Allah shower the best of blessing upon the Prophet ﷺ, and his family عليهم السلام. I would like to first thank Allah (swt) for giving me the tawfeeq for finishing this article. Also, I would like to give a special thanks to Brother Yahya Seymour; he has helped me a great deal in gathering sources for me, without him this article would not be what it is.